Updated: May 16, 2022

When to plant vegetables

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    (PDF) Vegetable Planting Calendar for Central Maryland

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    (PDF) Calendario de Siembra de Hortalizas para la Región Central de Maryland

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Author: Chrissa Carlson, UME Healthy School Communities Coordinator

These calendars were created for Central Maryland. You will need to adjust the timeline for the western and eastern portions of Maryland by finding the average dates in your area at National Gardening Association.

Frost/freeze dates

The number of frost-free growing days ranges from 150 in far Western Maryland to 225 on the Lower Eastern Shore. A wide range of warm and cool-season crops can be grown with planning and care.

Vegetable planting calendar - plain text version

  • This calendar is based on a last and first frost date around May 1 and October 31, respectively. Dates may be adjusted by finding the average frost dates in your area at the National Gardening Association's website.  The range of dates given is the period of time during which you can plant each vegetable and expect success. For a sustained harvest, plant a little bit of that vegetable every two weeks (succession planting).
  • Directly sowing seeds in the ground is possible for many vegetables. This is the default method shown for each vegetable that produces well from direct-sown plants. Plants marked with a * may also be planted as seedlings for an earlier harvest. Plants that are not marked with a * do not transplant well and should only be direct sown.
  • Plants that have a long period from seed to harvest compared to their preferred growing season must be started indoors and transplanted outside as seedlings. Growing seedlings indoors requires the use of grow lights.
  • If you do not wish to grow your own seedlings, buy transplants to plant during the transplant period shown in the Planting Time column.
  • Harvest dates are approximate based on planting on the earliest planting date and extending to the latest possible date. Achieving a sustained harvest through this period may depend on planting several successions.
Crop name Planting time and method Harvest time

Asparagus

Mid-March through mid-April, plant seedlings in the ground

April through the first week of June

Beans, Lima

Mid-May through the mid-July, plant seeds directly in the ground

Third week of July through September

Beans, Snap

May through July, plant seeds directly in the ground

July through mid-October

Beets

April through July, plant seeds directly in the ground

Mid-May through June

Broccoli

spring crop

February through March, plant seeds indoors to grow transplants

April, transplant seedlings in the ground

Mid-May through June

Broccoli

fall crop

Late June through early July, plant seeds indoors to grow transplants

Mid-July through early August, transplant seedlings in the ground

October through mid-November
Brussels Sprouts

May, plant seeds indoors to grow transplants

Mid-June through mid-July, transplant seedlings in the ground

September through December

Cabbage

spring crop

Mid-February through mid-March, plant seeds indoors to grow transplants

Mid-March through mid-April, transplant seedlings in the ground

June through July

Cabbage

fall crop

Mid-June through mid-July, plant seeds indoors to grow transplants

Mid-July through mid-August, transplant seedlings in the ground

Mid-September through mid-November

Cabbage, Chinese*

Spring: Mid-March through April, plant seeds directly in the ground

Fall: July through the early August, plant seeds directly in the ground

Spring: May through the mid-June

Fall: End of August through September

Cantaloupe/Muskmelon*

Mid-May through mid-June, plant seeds directly in the ground Jul through September
Carrots Mid-April through May and again mid-June through July, plant seeds directly in the ground Mid-June through October

Cauliflower

spring crop

March, plant seeds indoors to grow transplants

April, transplant seedlings outside

Mid-May through June

Cauliflower

fall crop

June, plant seeds indoors to grow transplants

July, transplant seedlings outside

Mid-September through mid-November
Chard, Swiss* Mid-April through the third week of July, plant seeds directly in the ground June through mid-November
Collards

March through April and again early June through early July, plant seeds indoors to grow seedlings

April and May and early July through early August, transplant seedlings outside

May through mid-December
Cucumbers* Mid-May through mid-July, plant seeds directly in the ground Early June through October
Eggplant

April, plant seeds indoors to grow transplants

Mid-May through mid-June, transplant seedlings outside

July through October
Garlic Mid October through mid-November or from mid-March through mid-April, plant individual garlic cloves in the ground June through September
Kale*

Spring: Early April and early July through mid-August, plant seeds in the ground

Fall: Second week of July through the first two weeks of September

May through December

Kohlrabi*

spring crop

April through mid-May, plant seeds in the ground May through the third week of June

Kohlrabi*

fall crop

Early July through mid-August, plant seeds directly in the ground August through the third week of September
Leek* April, plant seeds directly in the ground Mid-July through August

Lettuce, head

spring crop

March, plant seeds indoors to grow seedlings

April, transplant seedlings outside

May through mid-June

Lettuce, head

fall crop

First two weeks of July, plant seeds indoors to grow seedlings

First two weeks of August, transplant seedlings outside

September

Lettuce, leaf*

spring crop

Mid-March through May, plant seeds directly in the ground Mid-April through mid-July

Lettuce, leaf*

fall crop

Mid-July through the first two weeks of September, plant seeds directly in the ground September through November
Lettuce, Romaine*

Spring: April through mid-May, plant seeds directly in the ground

Fall: mid-July through August, plant seeds directly in the ground

Spring: mid-May through mid-July

Fall: September through October

Mustards*

Spring: April through mid-May, plant seeds directly in the ground

Fall: Mid-July through mid-September, plant seeds directly in the ground

Spring: Mid-May through June

Fall: September through October

Okra* Last three weeks of May, plant seeds directly in the ground Mid-July through September
Onions

February, plant seeds indoors to grow seedlings

April, transplant seedlings outside

End of July through September
Parsley April, plant seeds directly in the ground Mid-June through November
Parsnips April, plant seeds directly in the ground End of July through September
Peas Mid-March through April, plant seeds directly in the ground May through mid-July
Peas, Southern Mid-May, plants seeds directly in the ground July through August
Peppers

March through mid-April, plant seeds indoors to grow seedlings

Mid-May through mid-June, transplant seedlings outside

Mid-July through September
Potatoes Mid-March through mid-May, plant seed pieces or whole seed potatoes directly in the ground June through September
Pumpkins* Mid-May through mid-June, plant seeds indoors to grow seedlings September through November
Radishes

Spring: Mid-March through early May, plant seeds directly in the ground

Fall: Mid-July through mid-September, plant seeds directly in the ground

Spring: Mid-April through mid-June

Fall: Mid-August through October

Rutabagas July, plant seeds directly in the ground October through mid-November
Salsify April through mid-May and June, plant seeds directly in the ground August through mid-October
Shallots*

Spring: end of March through April, plant seeds in the ground

Fall: End of September through mid-October, plant seeds directly in the ground

Mid-June through August
Soybeans Mid-May through June, plant seeds directly in the ground September through October
Spinach

Spring: mid-March through the end of April, plant seeds directly in the ground

Fall: August through early September, plant seeds directly in the ground

Spring: mid-April through mid-June

Fall: mid-September through mid-December

Squash, summer* May through mid-June, plant seeds directly in the ground mid-June through October
Squash, winter* Mid-May through mid-June, plant seeds directly in the ground Mid-August through November
Sweet Corn

May through early July, plant seeds directly in the ground

Mid-September through October
Sweet Potatoes

Mid-April through mid-May, plant sprout slips indoors to grow transplants

Mid-May through mid-June, transplant seedlings outside

Mid-September through October
Tomatoes

Mid-March through mid-May, plant seeds indoors to grow seedlings

May through early July, transplant seedlings outside

July through October
Turnips

Spring: mid-March through April, plant seeds directly in the ground

Fall: mid-July through August, plant seeds directly in the ground

Spring: May through June

Fall: September through November

Watermelon* Mid-May through mid-June, plant seeds directly in the ground July through September

Author: Chrissa Carlson, UME Healthy School Communities Coordinator
Reviewer: Jon Traunfeld, UME Extension Specialist
August 2021

Still have a question? Contact us at Ask Extension.