Updated: October 11, 2023
By Drew Schiavone
Energy Policy Word Cloud


Clean, renewable energy has proven itself to be a powerful driver of economic development in Maryland, including job creation. Using more renewable energy will help Maryland achieve cleaner air and water, while protecting residents from the harmful impacts of fossil fuel pollution. Increasing the amount of clean, renewable electricity — like wind and solar energy — to power homes and businesses in the state will benefit public health, the economy, climate change, and our communities. Maryland has over 3,000 miles of tidal shoreline, making us one of the most vulnerable states in America to sea level rise. Climate change also means more severe storms, increased precipitation, deepening periodic droughts, and other detrimental impacts. Increasing Maryland’s RPS to 50% clean power by 2030 can reduce 8.1 million metric tons of CO2 (which is the carbon equivalent of taking 1.7 million cars off the road) each year. Fossil fuel combustion is a significant public health concern across the state. In Baltimore City, the number of children afflicted with asthma is twice the national average. The health burdens from air pollution disproportionately harm low-income communities and people of color with 68% of African Americans and nearly two in five Latinos living within 30 miles of a coal-fired power plant. The current RPS will significantly improve the state’s air quality which could also prevent 290 premature deaths, and over 3,000 asthma attacks per year.

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Renewable Portfolio Standard

Like many other states, Maryland has given more priority to renewable energy sources in recent years with the state's legislature enacting a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2008. Several amendments have been made to the Maryland’s RPS since then, including the latest update in May 2019, requiring 50% of the state's electricity retail sales to come from renewable sources by 2030. There are several ways the State can achieve this goal. Maryland also looks to other renewable energy sources as well, including existing biomass resources (such as forestry waste, agricultural crops, municipal waste, and poultry litter) and the development of onshore wind projects. In 2010, Maryland launched the Generating Clean Horizons initiative to increase the amount of installed clean energy in Maryland. The state committed to buy a certain amount of its own electricity needs at state facilities from renewable sources to meet the needs of state offices. Maryland government facilities purchase clean energy generated in Maryland at competitive prices, offered through contracts by private industry. This arrangement offers renewable energy developers the certainty needed to finance these new projects, which directly results in new jobs and tax revenue for all of Maryland.

Maryland's legislature enacted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) in 2004 and has amended it several times since then. The latest update came in May 2019, when the Maryland legislature required that 50% of the state's electricity retail sales come from renewable sources by 2030, in addition to the existing 20% requirement by 2020. The state will also study the possibility of obtaining 100% of its electricity from renewables by 2040. As part of the updated RPS, 14.5% of an electricity supplier's retail sales must come from solar power by 2030. The RPS also requires that the state's offshore wind generating capacity reach 400 megawatts in 2026 and increase to at least 1,200 megawatts in 2030.

Net Metering

What is net metering?

Nearly all households pay utility companies monthly for electricity service. As national energy consumption and issues of energy independence are increasingly being discussed, many are considering methods for reducing monthly bills by generating energy themselves. This is typically accomplished by installing a renewable energy generation system, such as a small wind or solar system, but may include a host of other technologies as well. Interconnecting a renewable energy generator, while remaining connected to the local electrical utility, and receiving incremental credit for energy produced is referred to as net metering. Maryland has enacted legislation to encourage net metering.

How does net metering work?

Net metering involves installing a special electric meter or reprogramming an existing meter so that electrical flow can be measured in both directions. Traditional electric meters only measure electricity flowing from the utility company to the customer. Because net metering customers are generating electricity in addition to using electricity, the meter must be able to measure the flow of electricity both from the consumer and the utility company. Depending on the type of meter currently installed, this may involve the utility company reprogramming the existing meter, or installing a new meter. Some utilities will provide this meter at no cost as part of the interconnection process, while others will pass the cost of this new meter on to the customer. Utilities typically encourage those considering net metering to contact them early in the process to identify meter considerations and to ensure that any wiring is done according to utility company specifications.

A net metering customer’s production and use of electricity will not be equal most of the time. When their production of electricity is less than their use, additional electricity is supplied by the utility company through the electrical grid. Alternatively, when a customer generates more electricity than they are using, excess electricity is transferred to the electrical grid and is used by other customers. At the end of the billing period, the net metering customer’s electrical production is subtracted from their total electrical consumption. The customer is billed only for the net amount (this is why the arrangement is referred to as net metering) of electricity consumed. In some situations a customer may produce more electricity than they use, in which case the excess amount may be carried over to the next billing period or transferred to the utility company at a price (often zero) determined in the net metering contract.

The contract provided by the utility company determines how often the account is “trued-up.” The true-up period is the point in time when the difference between production and consumption of electricity is computed. True-up periods are typically either monthly or annual, depending on the utility. Arrangements with the utility company will also determine the price of any electricity purchased from the utility company and the price at which any excess power will be purchased by the utility company.

What are the advantages of net metering?

Net metering offers several potential benefits. Net metering projects may provide a positive financial return for system owners. In these cases, the value of the reduction in monthly electric bills is larger than the cost of installing and maintaining the system. Some customers value knowing that some of the electricity they are using is provided by a renewable, local, or an alternative generating resource. Other customers value being somewhat self-sufficient in their electrical usage.

What are the challenges of net metering?

Net metering has potential to reduce revenue for utility companies. Customers who reduce their electrical bills also reduce their payments to the utility companies that help pay for fixed costs. Some utilities, especially smaller utilities with large service areas, express concerns that the loss of revenue from net metered customers does not reduce the cost of operation or service to those customers. To date, this has not been a significant issue due to the limited number of net metering customers. Some opponents also question the return on investment for net metering systems. Most renewable energy generation systems require many years to provide a positive financial return. While some look at non-monetary values in renewable energy generation, those who look to the current return on investment as a measure of the project’s value may argue that there are other means of making changes to energy use that have faster payback. 

When is net metering an option?

A customer should ask themselves several questions when considering a net metering project, such as:

  1. Will zoning regulations for my area allow for the installation of a generation system, such as a wind turbine or solar panel?

    It is fairly common for cities and subdivisions to limit the height of structures and types of structures in their jurisdiction. If zoning laws prohibit wind towers or solar arrays you may not be a good candidate for a net metering project.
  2. What systems will my utility allow and what standards must be met by the system?

    Net metering policies will vary by utility. Contact your local utility early in the process of considering a net metering project to obtain copies of their policy.
  3. What is my current cost (per kWh) of electricity? What energy price increases can be anticipated?

    Net metering projects will have a better financial return in situations with higher per kWh prices or when energy prices are expected to rapidly escalate.
  4. How much energy per meter do I currently consume?

    Net metering establishes an energy offset on a meter-by-meter basis. When calculating energy consumption, customers should only consider the meter they intend to off-set with alternative generation. Determining total energy consumption per meter can be accomplished by contacting the utility or reviewing your past statements.
  5. What will a net metering system cost?

    Before estimating the cost of a renewable energy system, determine your specific need. This will help you more accurately estimate the cost your potential project.
  6. Do I have an appropriate generation resource?

    For example, some locations have better wind and/or solar resources than other locations. The better the resource, the more power the system will generate.

  7. What incentives are available for net metering?

    Governments, utility companies and non-profit organizations offer a variety of programs to support alternative energy development. These incentives may include tax credits based on capital costs or electrical production. Other incentives may be in the form of a grant or other direct payment. Free or reduced-cost technical or business planning advice may also be available. The requirements to qualify for these incentives vary depending on the specifics of each program.

What are the economics?

The revenue (reduced electrical charges) generated by a net metering project is determined by the amount of electricity produced and the rate at which it offsets electricity that otherwise would have been purchased at retail price from the utility company. In Maryland the statewide average retail price for electricity in 2019 was 11.57 cents per kWh. This was greater than the national average of 10.53 cents. The financial performance of net metering projects improves as electricity rates increase. Additional revenue may also be available in the form of grants or tax credits. Renewable energy projects may also receive some revenue from the sale of renewable energy or carbon credits. The following economic factors should be considered:

  • The amount of energy being consumed per meter.
  • The cost of electricity supplied by the utility and anticipated cost increases.
  • The cost of the alternative generation system, less any grant or tax incentives.
  • The amount of energy projected to be produced by the alternative generating system.

Additional Resources

Explore other topics in this series:

  • Wind turbines and solar panel

    Alternative Energy

    Overview of alternative energy sources in Maryland.

  • Smog coming from Power Station

    Carbon and Climate

    The impact of energy on greenhouse gas emissions.

  • Coal Generation Plant near bay

    Conventional Energy

    Overview of conventional energy sources in Maryland.

  • Electrical Outlet

    Energy Defined

    Types of energy generated and used in Maryland.

  • Energy Policy Word Cloud

    --Energy Policy--

    Maryland's energy goals and Renewable Portfolio Standard.

  • Energy Hierarchy Pyramid

    Energy Priorities

    Decision-making tool for energy saving measures.

  • Ground Source Heat Pump Tubing in Field Trenches


    Explore geothermal heat pumps for your home, farm or business.

  • Water flowing in creek


    Explore micro-hydropower for your home or farm.

  • Inflation Reduction Act Paperwork Stamped

    Inflation Reduction Act

    Save money and energy through the IRA

  • Wind turbine in overcast sky


    Explore wind power for your home, farm or business.