Updated: February 3, 2021
A soil quality management issue unique to tree nurseries is the removal of soil off site with sale of the ornamental trees and shrubs, which are harvested with a balled and burlapped (B and B) root ball. The amount of soil removed with B and B harvest and sale has been estimated as much as 5 cm per year. One piece of evidence that has been used to estimate soil loss during B&B tree harvest is the volume of the holes left behind. However, the soil balls wrapped for B and B removal are generally densely permeated with tree roots, leading some to assume that much or most of the ball removed consist of roots rather than soil. There is a dearth of published data on this soil removal or published methods that will allow for reliable calculation of soil being removed from individual enterprises.The main conclusion from this study is that a balled and burlapped (B and B) root ball consists almost entirely (99%) of soil and that the tree roots take up only a negligible portion of the mass and volume. Our results show that in fact the volume of the hole left behind is a reasonable estimate of the volume of soil removed.
Updated: January 9, 2021
With the arrival of a new seed lubricant product, DUST, the University of Maryland evaluated its performance against two common seed lubricants in both corn and soybeans in 2019. DUST is a soy protein lubricant that is a cleaner alternative to commonly available seed lubricants, such as graphite which can create a mess for users of the product. It is also reported to contribute to early plant vigor.
Updated: February 4, 2021
The purpose of this extension bulletin is to provide an understanding of what Salmonella is, how it is picked up by birds, and what control strategies can be implemented to reduce its survival and transmission in poultry flocks.
Updated: April 7, 2021
University of Maryland Extension (UME) is a non-formal education system within the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources (AGNR). All programs offered within Extension are based on research and data generated at land grant Universities and all programs are open to the general public. UME has equine educators and specialists in several counties in Maryland that offer a variety of programs and publications for horse owners.
Updated: January 27, 2021
High tunnels or hoop houses are popular season-extension tools used by urban farmers, vegetable producers, and cut flower growers. One of the benefits of growing in a high tunnel is that it protects crops from excessive rain and keeps their leaves dry, which can reduce the spread of disease. However, soaking rains serve the beneficial purpose of leaching salt accumulated from fertilizers, compost and minerals in the irrigation water down below the root zone. Over time, a lack of soaking rains can result in a build-up of minerals in high tunnel soil, increasing the soil’s salinity. Sometimes a build-up of these minerals appears as a white crust on the surface of high tunnel soil. Salinity is an important consideration for management of healthy soil and growing media, particularly in high tunnels or hoop houses. Electrical conductivity measures salinity, or the total amount of soluble salts or minerals in the soil or growing medium.
Updated: September 28, 2021
Planting a native meadow is a challenging endeavor under the best circumstances. For Marylanders, the task is stymied by a lack of commercially available seed, and complicated by an abundance of misinformation about species selection. This fact sheet provides information on selecting species and obtaining seeds for planting a native meadow in Maryland's Coastal Plain ecoregions. The species recommended are based on those typically observed thriving in man-made meadows throughout the area. It is our hope that the species list will help landscape professionals and native seed producers in their efforts to meet the growing demand for meadow installation projects in Maryland.
Updated: January 22, 2021
A late August seeding of forage radish (Raphanus sativus L.) can eliminate the need for tillage before many early spring vegetable crops like spinach, beets, peas, onions, and even carrots under certain soil conditions in Maryland. In addition to reducing soil disturbance, not having to till prior to spring planting reduces labor requirements at a critical point in the season and may allow earlier planting. Forage radish, which winterkills when temperatures drop to 17-20°F, suppresses early spring weeds, allows soil to dry out and warm up, and provides an increased supply of N, S, P and other nutrients to crops in early spring. Because of the minimal amount of residue after forage radish, conventional planting equipment can effectively seed directly into the winterkilled cover crop without tillage. For early transplanted crops like onions, rows of radish can create holes into which transplants can be dropped. Experiment station results in Maryland and farmer trials throughout the mid-Atlantic and northeast have shown that this system requires a closed cover crop canopy in fall and may be ineffective in poorly structured, heavy soils.
Updated: January 21, 2021
Sales are one-time transactions. Marketing is the process by which you identify a group of people who are willing and able to become and to remain your customers. As a new farmer, you wonâ€™t have established relationships with customers and potential buyers, yet. You must determine who wants and /or needs your products. These are your potential customers. Marketing takes time. But, it can be one of the most cost-effective uses of time in your business.
Updated: January 22, 2021
When preparing to show livestock in 4-H it can be overwhelming at times with the rules and guidelines that are found within the Maryland 4-H program and specifically in your individual county. If you take the time to read over the rules and guidelines and have open communication with your 4-H Extension Educator, 4-H Swine Department Superintendents and your Club Leader it becomes an easier process to ensure a positive experience.
Updated: June 27, 2022
Infectious Coryza (IC) is a rapidly spreading respiratory disease that mainly affects chickens and, occasionally, pheasants and Guinea fowl of all ages. Currently, there is an ongoing outbreak in some poultry flocks in the northeastern U.S. This publication addresses the most frequently asked questions about IC and how to prevent and control it.