Leave some dead plant stalks, branches, and leaves in a portion of your garden (or the backyard). These natural materials provide winter shelter for pollinators, butterflies, moths, and other arthropods that are essential in the environment.
If you need to discard pesticides, check the product label for disposal instructions. Contact your local government's solid waste or environmental department to find out if they have a hazardous waste collection program for disposal of pesticides.
Trees & Shrubs
Prune shade trees after the leaves have fallen off. Begin by removing all dead, diseased branches, and making any necessary cosmetic cuts. Do not cut branches flush with the trunk. Leave the branch collar (swollen area on the trunk of a tree or a larger branch) but do not leave a stub.
Topping is not the correct pruning technique to help control the size of a tree. Crown reduction, pruning entire branches at their point of origin, is recommended if a tree must be reduced in size.
Protect plants vulnerable to winter injuries like azalea, rhododendron, holly, cherry laurel, boxwood, mountain laurel, or those at their northern limit for winter hardiness like newly planted Southern magnolia, aucuba, or Camellia spp. Hammer stakes placed about 12-18 inches away from the plant to support a barrier made from materials such as burlap or plastic to buffer the wind.
Incorporate organic matter into your garden beds. Composted animal manure (horse, cow, sheep, chicken) is excellent for improving garden soil. Keep garden beds covered with shredded leaves to minimize the risk of soil erosion and nutrient run-off. They can be tilled into the garden in spring or left in place as a mulch between rows of vegetables.
Protect fig trees from freezing temperatures. Any exposed wood is vulnerable to winter damage (temperature under 20 degrees F.).
Fallen leaves are an excellent addition to a compost bin. Do not add branches and other woody materials unless they are chopped into smaller pieces.
Save and store seeds to plant in your garden next year.
Mulch your perennials after the first hard freeze. This helps to protect them from frost heaving caused by the freezing and thawing of the soil. Mulch helps moderate temperature fluctuations, reducing this problem.
Dig up summer bulbous and tuberous plants, such as cannas, dahlias, gladiolus, caladium, or tuberous begonia, and store them indoors for the winter. After digging, remove loose soil from the roots, cut the foliage back to just above the bulb, and spread them out to cure in a dry area for one to three weeks. Allow a 4-6” stem to remain above cannas and dahlia tubers. Store bulbs in paper or mesh bags, cardboard boxes, or nylon stockings. Cover or layer the bulbs with peat moss, perlite, vermiculite or shredded newspaper. Store in a cool (40- 50 degrees), dry place and check periodically for shriveling or decay.
Save the time and effort of raking, blowing, and picking up leaves. Leaves are a valuable source of organic matter to improve the soil in a lawn and garden. Leaves that fall onto the lawn can be shredded with a lawnmower and left to decompose naturally in place. Fallen leaves also make an excellent mulch for garden beds. Shred them first by running over them with a mulching mower or a leaf shredder.
According to the Maryland Lawn Fertilizer Law, fertilizer cannot be applied to Maryland lawns by homeowners between November 15th and March 1st.
It is too late to broadcast lawn seed and expect it to survive the winter. Consider waiting until early spring.
Remove leaves that have fallen into uncovered ponds. Decomposing leaves will produce gasses that can sicken or kill fish when trapped under a layer of ice. Then cover the pond with screening to prevent additional leaves from falling in.
Protect garden and landscape plants from deer damage. Apply deer repellents to vulnerable plants according to the label directions. Reapply as necessary. If deer pressure is heavy, try rotating repellents. Deer netting and fencing may also be necessary.
Be on the lookout for spotted lanternfly adults and egg masses. Report any finds to the Maryland Department of Agriculture.
Indoor plants and pests
Rosemary topiaries are popular indoor plants. They can be tricky to grow and have trouble adapting to indoor growing conditions.
During periods of slow houseplant growth, allow most of the soil to dry out. Not bone dry, but not too moist. Wet soil causes root rot.
Miscellaneous beetles, like long-horned beetles and bark beetles, may emerge from firewood stored inside the home. These are nuisance pests; they are not a threat to the wood in your home. You can also prevent many pests from coming into the house by storing firewood outside the house.