southern magnolia blossom

This southern magnolia's blossoms and glossy foliage make it a wonderful specimen plant. But those thick, leathery, evergreen leaves can cause a maintenance problem in a high-traffic area.

Updated: August 8, 2022

Selecting an appropriate tree or shrub is the first step of successful planting.

  • Research how big the tree or shrub will grow to when mature. Mature trees can reach heights of 15 ft. to more than 100 ft. Some trees and shrubs spread out when mature and others grow upright and narrow.
  • Determining the tree's ultimate size and shape before you plant can save you the job of removing the tree or shrub in the future because it has grown too big for the site.
  • Select disease or insect-resistant varieties of ornamental plants. Contact Ask Extension to get advice or contact your local Cooperative Extension Service. 
  • Be aware of the utilities above and below ground. Large shade trees should be planted well away from power lines.  Plant roots and underground utilities are in danger of damage if they are too close.  Always contact Miss Utility (1-800-257-7777) before planting.
tree planting problem
Overgrown dwarf Alberta spruce blocking view from windows. Photo: R Malloy

What is the tree's proposed use in the landscape?

  • Trees and shrubs provide shade, block unsightly views, and provide interest with their flowers, fruit, foliage, and attractive bark. Also important is a tree’s resistance or susceptibility to, various insects and diseases. Make a list of characteristics you desire to narrow down your search for a new plant. Height, spread, evergreen or deciduous, attractive flowers or fruit, low water requirements, and soil adaptability are some of the characteristics to list before you go tree shopping.

Site conditions

  • Based on your site evaluation in terms of sun exposure, soil, and wind, is the plant capable of growing satisfactorily? Know your hardiness zone which is based on the average low temperature in winter. If a plant cannot survive the coldest winter temperatures, don’t plant it! In Maryland we have a wide range of potential low winter temperatures ranging from the coldest in the western part of the state and the mildest on the lower eastern shore. If you are considering a plant in which the winter hardiness is in question or unknown, check with the University of Maryland’s Home and Garden Information Center Ask Extension or your local County Extension office for guidance.

Plant natives

  • Natives tolerate local conditions without extra fertilizer, water, or high maintenance and support wildlife and pollinators. Visit the Maryland Native Plant Society website to locate where to purchase native plants.

Plants to avoid

  • Invasive plant species like burning bush and barberry, high maintenance plants, and plants that do not grow in your climate zone.

Now it is time to go tree shopping

  • Buy trees from a reliable nursery. While there is no official rating of nurseries and garden centers, there are several things that can be used to evaluate the quality. A quality nursery will usually be clean, well designed, and provide easy access to the plants. They will have a large stock of trees and be willing to answer all of your questions.
  • Trees should be clearly labeled and free from any damage to the trunk, branches, and foliage. A reliable nursery will provide some type of guarantee period, which should extend at least through one summer season. 

Additional resources

(PDF) Native Plants for Wildlife Habitat and Conservation Landscaping 
This publication of the National Park Service includes color photos as well as user-friendly information on native species appropriate for planting in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and adjacent coastal regions.

Marylanders Plant Trees | Maryland Department of Natural Resources Recommends trees for Maryland and offers a coupon towards the purchase of one of the trees on the list.

Choosing the Right Tree | International Society of Arborists

How Choosing the Right Tree Can Help Adapt to Climate Change | Chesapeake Bay Program

Still have a question? Contact us at Ask Extension.