University of Maryland Extension

Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations

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The use of any pesticide inconsistent with the label directions is a violation of Federal law.


This copy of the 2020-2021 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations replaces all previous editions of the Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations published individually for Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. Information presented in this publication is based on research results from the University of Delaware; the University of Maryland; Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey; The Pennsylvania State University; Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; West Virginia University; and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, combined with industry and grower knowledge and experience.

This vegetable production guide is intended for the commercial vegetable grower who has to make numerous managerial decisions. Although the proper choices of variety, pesticides, equipment, irrigation, fertilizer, and cultural practices are the individual vegetable grower’s responsibility, it is intended that these recommendations will facilitate decision-making. Recommended planting dates will vary across the six-state region. Local weather conditions, grower experience, and variety may facilitate successful harvest on crops planted outside the planting dates listed in this guide. This can be evaluated in consultation with the local agents and state specialists. Government agencies and other organizations administrating crop insurance programs or other support programs should contact local Extension agents and/or vegetable specialists for guidance.

The publication will be revised annually or as is necessary to include new information that evolves in the rapidly changing vegetable industry. Important updates will be communicated through local Extension agents and vegetable specialists. The Editors welcome constructive criticism and suggestions from growers and industry personnel who may wish to help improve future editions of this publication.

On this page is the 2020-2021 Mid-Atlantic Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendation Guide broken into 39 sections. Each of the vegetable sections is available as a separate segment that can be opened to only that section, hopefully making it easier for the user to quickly find the information they are interested in using.

Listing of Tables and Figures

Temperature, and Planting Recommendations for Transplant Production

Planting and Harvesting Schedule for Freestanding High Tunnel Vegetable Crop Production

State Pollinator Protection Plans

Target Soil pH Values for Vegetable Crops

Pounds of Calcium Carbonate Equivalent (CCE) Recommended per Acre

Conversion of Recommended Calcium Carbonate Equivalent to Recommended Limestone

Soil Test Categories for Nutrients Extracted by Mehlich 3 and 1

Composition of Principal Macronutrient Fertilizer Materials

Chemical Sources of Secondary and Micronutrients

Boron Recommendations Based on Soil Tests for Vegetable Crops

Recommendations for Correction of Vegetable Crop Nutrient Deficiencies

Sufficiency Ranges for Fresh Petiole Sap Concentrations in Vegetable Crops

Plant Nutrient Value Credits to Be Allowed for Manure Applications and Crop Residues

Status for Organic Production, Mineral Nutrient Value, and Relative Availability of Various Materials

Most Critical Periods of Water Needs by Crops

Available Water Holding Capacity Based on Soil Texture

Soil Infiltration Rates Based on Soil Texture

Irrigation Applied per Hour per Cropped Acre (inches)

Maximum Number of Hours per Application for Drip Irrigated Vegetables

Irrigation Guidelines for Tensiometers

Equivalent Injection Proportions

EPA Signal Words According to Toxicity Categories (I, II, III, IV) of Pesticide Products

Kd, Koc, Water Solubility and Persistence Values for Selected Pesticides

Ground Speed Conversion

Herbicide Effectiveness on Common Weeds in Vegetables

Crop Rotation Planting Restrictions 98

Prepackaged Herbicide Mixtures Available for Various Vegetable Crops and the Components of the Mixtures

Important Herbicide Groups for Commercial Vegetables

Insecticides and Miticides Labeled for Use on Greenhouse Vegetables

Insecticides with Labels for Chemigation

FRAC Codes and Corresponding Chemical Groups for Commonly-Used Fungicides

Commonly Used Fungicides Registered for Vegetables

Effective Seed Treatment Temperature Protocols (2nd Bath) for Pathogen Eradication

Selected Fungicides and Bactericides Labeled for Greenhouse Use

Vegetable Seed Sizes

Plant Spacing and Populations

Frequently Used Weights and Measures

Simple Plant-Growing Mix

Preferred Plant-Growing Mix


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