University of Maryland Extension

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Rust - Flowers and Vines

Rusty colored spots on the underneath of geranium leaves Symptoms of infection usually appear as light colored spots on the upper leaf surface followed by rusty colored areas of spores either on the upper or lower leaf surfaces (goldenrod and geranium). Rubbing these areas with a finger or onto a...

Root, Crown and Stem Rots - Flowers

Pachysandra suffering from root rot Root and crown infections will first appear as wilting or collapse of the plant. Early detection of infected plants includes scouting for plants that either wilt or collapse during periods of water stress. Chronically infected plants may be stunted or off color...

Voles - Groundcovers

Voles, also known as meadow mice, are very plentiful in many landscapes. They are often confused with a mole. However, unlike the mole, they feed on plant material and spend more time above ground. There are actually two species in Maryland: the meadow vole and the pine vole. Voles are active day...

Spider Mites - Flowers and Groundcovers

Yellowing due to a spider mite infestation Spider mites are very tiny plant pests that are related to spiders. They feed only on plants. The colors may be reddish or light green with two dark spots. They are about the size of a period on a page. Spider mites can be a problem all year indoors and...

Soft Scales - Groundcovers

Dieback on sweetbox from cottony camellia scale. Scales are sucking insects that attack some groundcovers. Heavy infestations may cause leaf yellowing, stunting and dieback. Soft scales appear as raised bumps on leaves and stems, vary in color and can be scraped off. They may be over 1/3 inch when...

Slugs and Snails - Flowers

Slug damage on hosta. Slugs and snails can be troublesome pests in the garden. Both eat large, ragged holes in the leaves of plants and may also completely consume young seedlings. They begin feeding early in the spring and continue through the growing season until frost. Slugs and snails feed on a...

Armored Scales - Groundcovers

Euonymus scale on pachysandra. Scales are sucking insects that attack groundcovers such as lirope and pachysandra. Heavy infestations may cause leaf yellowing, stunting and dieback. Armored scales are small, about one-eighth inch, flat, disk-like, circular, elongate or oystershell shaped. The color...

Fungal Leaf Spots - Annuals, Bulbs, Groundcover, Perennials and Vines

General Leaf Spots Fungal leaf spots are common on many herbaceous flowering plants, however some are more devastating than others. Experience and regular monitoring will alert gardeners as to the seriousness of the problem. Foliar diseases are frequently weather dependent and vary in seriousness...

Bacterial Leaf Spots - Annuals, Bulbs, Groundcovers, Perennials, and Vines

Closeup of bacterial leaf spots on zinnia Bacteria are single-celled, microscopic organisms, bounded by a cell wall, that cause plant diseases. Bacteria are much smaller than fungi and nematodes but can cause severe symptoms. Bacterial pathogens can cause soft rots, vascular wilts, leaf spots, and...

Bacterial Crown Gall - Flowers

Crown gall is caused by a soil-inhabiting bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens , which occurs worldwide and attacks over 600 plant species in more than 90 plant families. The disease severity can vary depending on the host, but host mortality is usually caused by secondary pathogen invasion...

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