University of Maryland Extension

Key to Control Methods

This key is referenced on the various Invasives Control pages.

Mechanical Options: 

  • (B) BurnUse controlled fires to destroy aboveground growth. (First, contact local fire department).
  • (C&G) Cut and grind:  Cut down, then grind stump.
  • (C/M/reC) Cut, Mow, and Re-cut:  Cut to the ground and re-cut at the first appearance of new growth.  This starves the root system. It may require persistence.
  • (F/S) Flower/Seed removal Do not allow seed development.  When plant removal must be postponed, prevent spread by seed. Cut off flowers before seed forms. Some plants flower and produce seed at the same time. Bag and dispose of seeds in landfills.  DO NOT compost.
  • (G) Girdle:  Remove bark and cambium layer.  Remove (or spray) any re-sprouting from roots or below girdled area.
  • (P/D) Pull/Dig: This is especially effective with seedlings or annuals. Mile-A-Minute vine, for instance, has almost no root system at all.  However, for those that can re-sprout from a tiny root piece, such as Canada thistle, removal of entire root is critical. Moist soil facilitates.
  • (SM) Smother: Cover plants with cardboard, many layers of newspapers, or plastic, then mulch. Plastic must be removed afterward, and if mulch decomposes on it, this can be an arduous process.
  • (WW) Weed Wrench (TM):  This tool can uproot large shrubs and small trees

Chemical Options

  • (C&P/S) Cut and Paint or Spray:  Cut down trunk and paint or target spray the stump within five minutes.
  • (H/S) Hack & Squirt:  Slash bark using a saw or hatchet, and squirt liquid herbicide into the wounds; re-spray any re-growth. 
  • (PostEPost-emergent herbicides:  Spray foliage of perennial/woody plants. Spot-treat in lawns.
  • (PreE)Pre-emergent herbicide:  Spread this granular herbicide prior to seed germination. 

Biological Controls

Insects or disease pests of a particularly invasive plant are identified in the region where the plant originated.  These pests undergo extensive testing before being released here to ensure that they will kill only the target invasive plant and no other. For example, an insect is currently being raised in mass quantities for release to eat Mile-A-Minute vine.  

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