Fruit Glossary

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B

C

D

E

F

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I

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N

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P

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Z

A

Abiotic – Nonliving (or non-Biological) components of the habitat, such as climate, water, and light.

Acclimate – To adapt to new environmental conditions.

Achene – A simple, one-seeded fruit in which the seed is attached to the ovary wall at only one point, such as the “seed” on the surface of a strawberry.

Acid soil – A soil with a pH value below 7.0. A soil which has a preponderance of hydrogen over hydroxyl ions in the soil solution.

Aesthetic threshold – A level of injury to an ornamental plant considered unacceptable to the owner and that triggers a control action.

Aggregate fruit – Fruit made up of two or more carpels from a single flower, plus the stem axis (Example – blackberry).

Alkaline soil – A soil for which the pH reading is above 7.0.

Amendment – Any material, such as lime, gypsum, compost, sawdust, or synthetic conditioner, that is worked into the soil to make it more productive. Strictly, a fertilizer is also an amendment, but the term amendment is used more commonly for added materials other than fertilizer.

Angiosperm – A flowering plant whose seed is enclosed in an ovary.

Anthracnose – A type of leaf or fruit spot disease caused by acervuli-forming fungi and characterized by sunken lesions and necrosis.

Asexual propagation – The duplication of a plant from a cell, tissue, or organ of the plant.

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Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) – A bacterium that produces a protein crystal that damages the gut of insects (mostly caterpillars), formulations of which are used as insecticides.

Bare root (BR) – A small dormant tree sold with soil removed from the root for shipping and transplanting.

Beneficial (noun) – Organism that provides a benefit to crop production; applied especially to natural enemies of pests, and to pollinators such as bees.

Berry- A simple fruit derived from one flower, in which the parts remain succulent; it may be derived from an ovary (Example – grape) or from an ovary plus receptacle tissue (Example - blueberry).

Biological control – The action of parasites, predators, or pathogens in maintaining another organism’s population density at a lower average level than would occur in their absence. Biological control may occur naturally or from manipulation or introduction of biological control agents by people.

Biological diversity – Presence of many different types of living organisms.
Biotic – The living (plant and animal) components of the habitat.

Biotic disease – Disease caused by a pathogen, such as a bacterium, fungus, mycoplasma, or virus.

Blight – A disease characterized by sudden, severe, and extensive spotting, discoloration, wilting, or destruction of leaves, flowers, stems, or entire plants, usually attacking young, growing tissues (in disease names, often coupled with the name of the affected part of the host, e.g., leaf blight, blossom blight, shoot blight).

Bone meal – Cooked bones ground to a meal without any of the gelatin or glue removed. Steamed bone meal has been steamed under pressure to dissolve part of the gelatin.

Bordeaux mixture – A fungicide made of a mixture of hydrated lime and copper sulfate.

Botanical – Derived from plants or plant parts.

Botrytis blight – A gray, felt-type mold that covers parts of a plant and causes stunting, dieback, and distorted growth.

Bramble – Any shrub with thorns in the rose family; usually refers to blackberries and raspberries.

Bud – An undeveloped stem, consisting of a tiny bundle of cells, from which leaves, lateral buds, flower parts, or all three will arise. Leaves form as either terminal buds at the ends of twigs or lateral buds along the sides of twigs. Most buds have protective scales that enclose the leaf tissue. Buds without scales are called naked buds.

Buffer capacity of soils– The ability of the soil to resist a change in its pH (hydrogen ion concentration) when acid-forming or base-forming materials are added to the soil.

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Calyx – The sepals of a flower; which enclose the unopened flower bud.

Cane – The flexible stem of a plant such as raspberry, blackberry, or grape.

Canker – A localized dead, discolored, often sunken area (lesion) on a root, trunk, stem, or branch.

Carpel – The female part of a flower consisting of the stigma, style and ovary.

Caterpillar – The larva of a butterfly, moth, sawfly, or scorpionfly.

Cation – An ion carrying a positive charge of electricity. Soil cations include calcium Ca++, H+, and Sodium Na+2.

Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) –The capacity of a soil to exchange cations with the soil solution. Often used as a measure of potential soil fertility; usually expressed as milliequivalents per 100 grams of soil.

Certified seed or planting stock – Seeds, tubers, or young plants certified by a recognized authority to be free of or to contain less than a minimum number of specified pests or pathogens.

Chlorosis – Yellowing or bleaching of normally green plant tissue usually caused by the loss of chlorophyll.

Chlorotic – Lack of chlorophyll, giving leaves a blanched appearance.

Clay – A minute, mineral soil particle less than 0.002 millimeter in diameter.

Clustered – Multiple leaves, flowers, or fruits seemingly arising from a common juncture; because they are crowded, it is difficult to determine if they are alternate or opposite in orientation.

Cocoon – A sheath, usually of silk, formed by an insect larva as a chamber for pupation.

Contact insecticide – A poison that must contact the body of the insect to be effective.

Corolla – The combined term for floral petals.

Crawler – The active first instar of a scale insect.

Cross-pollination –The movement of pollen from one flower to another, either on the same plant, between different plants of the same cultivar, between plants of different cultivars and sometimes between plants of different species.

Crown – The part of a plant where the roots and stem meet, usually at soil level. Also used to refer to the shortened stem of a strawberry plant, from which roots, leaves, and fruit trusses
arise. On a tree, all the branches that hold the leaves are collectively called a “crown”.

Cultivar –Cultivated variety; a subdivision of a species; a result of human selection.

Cultivation – Preparation of the soil for growing plants; tilling or hoeing soil to eliminate weeds.

Cultural control – The use of gardening techniques to control pest populations.

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Degree-day - A unit combining temperature and time used in monitoring growth and development of organisms.

Disease – Any disturbance of a plant that interferes with its normal structure, function, or economic value.

Disease resistance – The tendency not to be infected by a particular pathogen.

Disease tolerance – The ability of a plant to continue growing without severe symptoms despite being infected by a pathogen.

Dominant leader – The tallest, strongest, main trunk of the tree.

Dormancy – A state of quiescence or inactivity.

Dormant – Alive but in a state of suspended animation until all conditions are right for growth.

Drift – The aerial dispersal of a substance such as a pesticide beyond the intended application area.

Drip irrigation – A water-conserving irrigation system of plastic tubing with small holes that allows water to drip out and reach the root zone of plants.

Drip line – A line encircling a tree corresponding to the furthest extension of its branches.

Drainage – The movement of water through the soil.

Drought – A prolonged period of dryness that can cause damage to plants.

Drupe – A one-seeded, fleshy fruit with the seed enclosed in a stony pit (Examples - cherry, plum).

Drupelet – A small drupe, the unit making up the fruit (Examples- raspberry, blackberry).

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Economic threshold – A level of pest population or damage at which the cost of a control action equals the crop value gained from control action.

Epigynous – Having floral parts that arise conjointly from above the ovary (e.g., apple and pear flowers).

Espalier – A plant trained to grow flat against a wall or trellis.

Ethylene – A gas produced by plants that acts like a hormone; speeds aging and responds to stress.

Everbearing – An imprecise term applied to some strawberry and bramble cultivars that implies the ability to flower and fruit for an extended period.

Exocarp – The outer layer of fruits derived from an ovary (e.g. the skin of a peach).

Exposure – The intensity, duration, and variation in sun, wind, and temperature that characterize any particular lawn or planting site.

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Family – A taxonomic division of an order. Usually, a family comprises two or more genera, but one genus possessing sufficiently distinctive characters may form a family.

Fertilizer burn – The browning and, in extreme cases, killing of plants from exposure to excessive fertilizer salts on the leaves or roots.

Fertilizer grade – An expression that indicates the weight percentage of plant nutrients in a fertilizer. Thus a 10-20-10 grade contains 10 percent nitrogen (N), 20 percent phosphoric
acid (P2O5) and 10 percent potash (K2O).

Filament – The part of the stamen that holds the anther in position for pollen dispersal.

Floating row covers – Lightweight, gauzy, polyester fabric laid directly over a crop to accelerate growth and give protection.

Floret – A small flower, usually one of a dense cluster.

Floricane – Two-year-old cane on raspberries and blackberries which flowers, fruits and then dies.

Flower – A shoot of determinate growth with modified leaves that is supported by a short stem; the structure involved in the reproductive processes of plants that bear enclosed seeds
in their fruits. Flower bud – A bud in which flower parts are contained.

Foliar – Applied to or affecting the foliage (i.e. foliar fertilizers, foliar nematodes).

Frost pocket – A depression in the terrain into which cold air drains, but cannot escape, thereby subjecting plants to freeze injury.

Fruiting wood – On grapevines, the one-year-old cane that will produce the current year’s fruit.

Full Sun – A site that receives at least six to eight hours of direct sun each day during the growing season.

Fungicide – Chemical or physical agent that kills or inhibits the growth of fungi.

Fungus (plural: fungi) – Saprophytic and parasitic organisms that lack chlorophyll and
include molds, rusts, mildews, smuts, mushrooms, and yeast.

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Gall – Localized swelling or outgrowth of plant tissue, often formed in response to the action of a pathogen or other pest.

Genus (Genera - plural) – 1) Groups of closely related species clearly distinguished from other plants. 2) the first name of an organism in the binomial system of classification.

Glaucous – Covered with a whitish bloom (e.g., plum, blueberry).

Grafting – The joining of two separate structures, such as a root and a stem or two stems, so that by tissue regeneration they form a union and grow as one plant.

Graft union – Place where the rootstock joins the scion or top part of a grafted tree or vine.

Growing season – The period from the last spring freeze until the first freeze in the fall.

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Hardening – The result of many changes that occur in a plant as it develops resistance to adverse conditions, especially cold.

Hardy – Term used in the Temperate Zone for plants which survive outside every year without protection.

Heave – The partial lifting of a plant out of the soil as a result of alternating freezing and thawing of the soil.

Heavy metals – The heavy metals of concern to gardeners are lead, zinc, nickel, arsenic, copper and cadmium. These metals can be toxic to plants (and a potential risk to humans) when they accumulate to high levels in the soil.

Heeling in – Covering the roots of dormant plants with soil or mulch for short periods.

Herbaceous – A nonwoody plant, lacking secondary growth.

Herbaceous perennial – A plant with soft, succulent stems whose top is killed back by frost in many temperate and colder climates, but whose root and crown remain alive and send out
top growth when favorable growing conditions return.

Herbicide – An agent that stops plant growth or kills a plant.

Honeydew – Sugary plant sap which is excreted by aphids and other juice-sucking, plant-feeding insects and which makes leaves shiny and sticky and leads to sooty mold.

Horticultural oils – Highly refined petroleum-based or seed derived oils that are manufactured specifically to control pests on plants.

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Incompatibility – A state in which sex cells or graft components are not compatible.

Incomplete flower – Flower lacking one or more of the four sets of floral parts.

Indehiscent – Type of dry fruit in which the fruit wall does not split at any certain point or seam at maturity.

J

Juglone – A toxic natural chemical defense mechanism of certain trees, to reduce competition for resources. Plants such as tomato, potato, blackberry, blueberry, azalea, mountain laurel, rhododendron, red pine and apple may be injured or killed within one to two months of growth within the root zone of these trees.

June drop – The final post-bloom shedding of fruits, often occurring in late May or June.

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Kelp – Any of several species of seaweed harvested for use as a fertilizer or plant growth activator.

L

Larva (pl. larvae) – The immature form of insect that develops through the process of complete metamorphosis including egg, several larval stages, pupa, and adult. In mites, the first-stage immature is also called a larva.

Lateral – A side bud or shoot, or branch coming off a main shoot or twig.

Lateral bud – Buds found along the length of the twig, not at the tip.

Layering – A method of propagation in which adventitious roots form before the new plant is severed from the parent plant.

Leaf scorch – Injury to leaves due to lack of sufficient water, excessive transpiration, or injury to the water-conducting system of the plant.

Lesion – Localized area of diseased or discolored tissue.

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Macroclimate – 30-year weather patterns- independent of soils or topography (state and regional level). Example- average spring and fall frost dates.

Macronutrient – A nutrient needed in large amounts by plants: oxygen, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sulfur.

Maggot – A legless larva without a well-developed head capsule. Example -true flies, Diptera.

Mandible – Jaw; the forward-most pair of mouthparts of an insect.

Mature (plant) – Developmentally speaking, a plant that is able to produce flowers (reproduce); contrast with juvenile which is unable to reproduce.

Mesocarp – The middle of three layers of the fruit wall.

Microclimate – Environmental conditions around a plant- from 2’ down in the soil to 3-4 times the height of the plant. Example- plants shading one another.

Micronutrient – A nutrient needed in small amounts by plants; also called a trace or minor element.

Mulch – A material applied to the surface of a soil to conserve of moisture, stabilize soil temperature, suppress weed growth, protect plant roots from heat, or cold, or to keep fruit clean.

Multiple fruit – Fruit formed by fusion of carpels from many flowers, plus stem axis, and accessory tissues. Example: mulberry, fig.

Mummy – 1) Unharvested shriveled fruit (often resulting from disease). 2) The crusty skin of an aphid whose inside has been consumed by a parasite.

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Natural enemies – Predators, parasites, or pathogens that are considered beneficial because they attack and kill organisms that we normally consider to be pests.

O

Offset – Plant produced at the base of the parent plant and easily detached from it.

Organic – Of plant or animal origin; containing carbon compounds.

Organic matter – Plant and animal residues, such as leaves, trimmings, and manure, in various stages of decomposition.

Organic soil – A general term applied to a soil or to a soil horizon that consists primarily of organic matter, such as peat soils, muck soils, and peaty soil layers.

Ovary – Swollen bottom part of the pistil that contains the ovules or immature seeds.

Ovule – The portion of the ovary that contains the embryo sac and the egg cell, and which, after fertilization, develops into a seed.

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Parasite, parasitoid – An organism that lives on or in another living organism (called a host) and obtains its food supply from the host.

Parthenocarpic – Species or cultivar that produces fruits without pollination and fertilization.

Parthenogenesis – Development of the egg without fertilization.

Pathogen – A disease-causing organism.

Pedicel – The stalk which directly supports a flower or fruit.

Peduncle – The short, main supportive stem of the flower or fruit cluster.

Perfect flower – A flower that has both a pistil (or pistils) and stamens.

Pericarp – The fruit wall, consisting of three distinct layers: the exocarp, the mesocarp, and the endocarp.

Pesticide – Any substance or mixture intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, killing, or mitigating problems caused by any insects, rodents, weeds, nematodes, fungi, or other pests.

Pesticide resistance – The genetically acquired ability of an organism to survive a pesticide application at doses that once killed most individuals of the same species.

Petals – Structures collectively making the corolla, which protect the inner reproductive structures and often attract insects by either their color or their nectar and thus facilitate pollination.

Petiole – 1) The leafstalk that connects the blade(s) to the twig; 2) The narrow stalk or stem by which the abdomen is attached to the thorax (Hymenoptera- wasps); in ants, the node like first segment of the abdomen.

pH – A measure of acidity or alkalinity of a medium. A pH value of 7.0 indicates neutral; lower values indicate acid, higher values indicate alkaline.

Pheromone – A substance secreted by an organism to affect the behavior or development of other members of the same species; sex pheromones that attract the opposite sex for mating are used in monitoring certain insects.

Phloem – The vascular tissue responsible for the movement of starches and sugars from their site of manufacture (photosynthetic tissue) to the entire plant.

Photosynthesis – The chemical process that green plants use to produce sugars (and oxygen) from carbon dioxide and water, thereby capturing solar energy for use in other chemical processes and tissue building activities of the plant.
6CO2 +6H2O-----------------> SUGAR (C6H12O6) + 6O2

Physiological disorder – A disorder caused by factors other than a pathogen; an abiotic disorder.

Phytotoxicity – The ability of a material such as a pesticide or fertilizer to cause injury to plants.

Pistil – the female seed-bearing organ of a flower consisting of ovary, style, and stigma.

Pith – The center or inside of a twig, branch, or stem is called the “pith.” The kind of wood in the pith is often different than the kind of wood around the outside. In some species, the pith has some really weird properties. it might be a different color, or be really soft, or even have chambers. See also “chambered pith” and “continuous pith.”

Pollen – Dustlike male bodies capable of fertilization of ovules. Each pollen grain contains two cells: the vegetative cell from which the pollen tube develops and the generative cell which produces sperm.

Pollenizer – The producer of pollen or the variety used as a source of pollen for cross-pollination.

Pollination – The transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma.

Pollinator – An insect or other source by which pollen is carried from one flower to another.

Polygamous – Bearing both unisexual and perfect flowers on the same plant or different plants of the same species. Example – paw paw.

Pome fruit – A simple fleshy fruit, the outer portion of which is formed by the floral parts that surround the ovary. Example – apple.

Pot-bound – Having restricted root growth and a circular pattern of root growth caused by a too-small container.

Potting medium (pl. media) – Material used for growing plants in containers. They may include vermiculite, perlite, sand, peat, compost soil, loam and fertilizer.

Predator – Any animal (including insects and mites) that kills and feeds on other animals (prey).

Prepupa – A quiescent stage between the larval period and the pupal period.

Primocanes – New, first-year canes on raspberries and blackberries.

Propagules – Any part of a plant from which a new plant can grow, including seeds, bulbs, and rootstocks.

Protandry – A state in which pollen is shed before the stigmas are receptive.

Protectant – Agent, usually a chemical, applied to a plant surface in advance of a pathogen to prevent infection.

Protogyny – A state in which stigmas are receptive before pollen is shed.

Pupa (pl. pupae) – The nonfeeding, inactive stage between larva and adult in insects with complete metamorphosis.

Pycnidium (plural: pycnidia) – Small, spherical or flask-shaped structure, formed by certain types of fungi, inside which spores are produced.

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Rasping – Mouth parts that are rough and used to scrape a surface to feed. Example – thrips.

Renewal spur – On grapevines, the cane pruned to one or two nodes on the cordon; it becomes the fruiting cane the following year.

Renewal pruning – A technique for reviving old, overgrown shrubs by cutting them down to the ground in early spring.

Renovation – Removing an old planting and putting in a new one or removing and replacing only part of a planting.

Resistance (adj. resistant) – Host with the genetic ability to prevent or impede disease development.

Root – Vegetative plant part that anchors the plant, absorbs water and minerals in solution and often stores food. It is distinguished from a rhizome by not having nodes.

Root hairs – Tubular outgrowths of surface cells of the root.

Rootstock – The root onto which a scion or bud is grafted or budded.

Rot – Softening, discoloration, and often disintegration of succulent plant tissue as a result of fungal or bacterial infection.

Row cover fabric – A spun-bonded polyester fabric used to protect plants from pest damage or harsh climate.

Runner – 1) A slender stolon with elongated internodes that grows vigorously across the ground. These root at the nodes that touch the ground (example - strawberries); or 2) stem (vine) of certain types of vegetable plants that grow vigorously across the ground.

Rust – A type of fungal disease that requires two hosts and gives a rusty appearance to the plant. Examples - white pine blister rust alternates between white pine and currant and cedar apple rust alternates between eastern red cedar and apple.

S

Sanitation – Any activity that reduces the spread of pathogen inoculum, such as removal and destruction of infected plant parts, or cleaning of tools and field equipment.

Scientific name – A Latinized name, internationally recognized, of a species or subspecies. The scientific name of a species consists of the generic and specific names and the name of the describer of the species.

Scion – The upper part of the union of a graft. The shoot portion of a rootstock-scion graft.

Scorch – Injury to leaves due to lack of sufficient water, excessive transpiration, or injury to the water-conducting system of the plant.

Secondary infection – Infection by microorganisms that enter the host through an injury caused previously by another pathogen, insect, or physical injuries.

Secondary inoculum – Inoculum produced after primary infection by a pathogen.

Self-fertile – Plants that will set seed without cross-pollination.

Self-fruitful – The ability to set fruit with pollen from the same flower or tree.

Self-pollination – The process by which pollen is transferred from the pollen-producing section of the plant to the pollen-receiving part of the plant of the same flower or another flower of the same cultivar.

Self-sterile – Unable to produce seed when self-pollinated.

Semi-hardwood cuttings – Cuttings made from woody, broad-leaved evergreen species such as ligustrum and holly.

Senescence – Process of death of an entire plant or plant part.

Sepals – Structures that usually form the outermost whorl of the flower; collectively, the calyx.

Sexual reproduction – Production of new generations involving the exchange of chromosomes from both a male and female parent.

Shoot – A stem that is one year old or less and possesses leaves.

Side-dress – To apply fertilizer to the soil on the side(s) of growing plants to promote fruiting or more vigorous plant growth.

Signs – are the visible parts or products of the pathogen, insect or other pest, seen on the host, that can be used to identify the pathogen or pest.

Simple bud – Bud containing either leaves or flowers, but not both.

Simple fruit – Fruit developing from one carpel. Example – acorn, bean.

Simple layering – A method similar to tip layering, except that the stem behind the end of the branch is covered with soil and the tip remains above ground.

Slow-release fertilizer – A fertilizer that is made by coating the particles with a wax, clay or other material to provide a predictable, slow release of the encapsulated nutrients.

Soil conditioner – Any material added to soil to improve its structure, tilth, or drainage.

Soilless mix – Potting medium that contains a mixture of peat, vermiculite, perlite, compost, or other materials, but no mineral soil.

Soil permeability – The quality of a soil horizon that enables water or air to move through it.

Soil profile - A vertical section of the soil extending through all its horizons.

Soil structure – The arrangement of individual soil particles.

Soil texture – The relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay of a mass of soil.

Species – A group of individuals that look the same and can breed with each other but not usually with individuals of another species.

Specific epithet – The descriptive second name of the binomial given to a species. Example - “rubrum” is the specific epithet of Acer rubrum.

Spore – 1) The microscopic reproductive unit in fungi, ferns and other lower plants; it is analogous to the seed of green plants. 2) A bacterial cell modified to survive an adverse environment.

Spur – Compressed woody stem that is the primary fruiting structure for some fruit trees like apple and sweet cherry.

Stamen – The male, pollen-bearing part of the flower consisting of the anther and the slender filament that holds it in position.

Staminate flower – Flower in which only the stamens (male reproductive parts) are present.

Stem – The main trunk of a plant which develops buds and shoots.

Stigma – The pollen-receiving site of the pistil. 

Style – 1) The slender part of a pistil between the stigma and the ovary; or 2) A bristle like process at the apex of an antenna; a short, slender, fingerlike process.

Subsoil – Soil layers of varying consistencies found beneath the topsoil. It contains little or no humus.

Susceptible host – An organism that can be infected by a pathogen.

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Temperate fruit – A fruit plant that requires a cool period and is deciduous. Examples - apple, pear, and peach.

Tender – Plants that can be injured by cold weather or frost.

Tendril – A slender, coiling modified leaf or leaf part that helps plants climb.

Thinning – 1) Pulling or clipping the weak seedlings in a pot or row in order to leave the others room enough to develop; or 2) Removing a branch or water sprout at the point where it joins a main stem branch or trunk.

Tip layering – Layering in which rooting takes place near the tip of the current season’s shoot, which naturally falls to the ground.

Tolerance – Capacity of a plant or crop to sustain disease or endure adverse environment without serious damage, injury, or loss of yield.

Top dressing – A fertilizer or soil amendment applied to the soil or surf surface; usually incorporated by raking or irrigating.

Topsoil – Uppermost layer of soil, usually darker and richer than the subsoil.

Toxin – A poisonous substance produced by a living organism.

Trap crop – A crop or portion of a crop intended to attract pests so they can be destroyed by treating a relatively small area or by destroying the trap crop and the pests together.

Trunk – The main stem of a tree, shrub, or vine.

Twig – Stem without leaves that is one year old or less.

 U

Umbel – Type of flower cluster in which the pedicels arise from a common point and are about equal in length.

Understock – The part of a plant to which a graft is attached.

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Variety – An identifiable strain within a species, usually referring to a strain which arises in nature as opposed to a cultivar which is specifically bred for particular properties; sometimes used synonymously with cultivar.

Vector – An organism that transports and transmits a disease-causing pathogen.

Véraison – Beginning of fruit ripening, recognized by berry softening and beginning of pigmentation in colored varieties.

Virulence – The relative infectiousness of a bacteria or virus, or its ability to overcome the resistance of the host metabolism.

Virulent – Pathogenic, capable of causing disease.

Virus – A very small organism that can multiply only within living cells of other organisms, and is capable of producing disease symptoms in some plants and animals.

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Wet feet – A condition where plants are exposed to excess soil moisture caused by flooding or a high water table.

Whip – A very young tree that still has a flexible trunk.

Wilt – Loss of rigidity and drooping of plant parts caused by dry soil conditions or an interference with water conduction inside the stems (i.e. boring insects, pathogens).

Wilting point – The amount of water in a soil when a plant cannot obtain enough water to remain turgid.

Water table – The upper surface of ground water.

Woody plant – A plant having secondary (woody) growth due to a lateral meristem; trees and shrubs.

X

Xylem – The principal strengthening and water/nutrient conducting tissue of branches, stems and roots. The wood of woody plants.

Z

Zone of cell division – The area of the root containing meristematic tissue and responsible for cell division.

Zone of elongation – The area of the root where cells increase in size and length.

Zone of maturation – The area of the root where cells differentiate into cell types and root hairs form from the epidermal cells.

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