University of Maryland Extension

An Old Fruit Crop, New to Maryland Farms

 
Aronia

A new alternative crop is being studied by University of Maryland Extension for organic fruit production. The Black Chokeberry or Aronia, to which it is commonly referred, is an eastern U.S native with a long history of fruit production in Eastern Europe. The Aronia fruit is about the size of a large blueberry and comes in clusters of about 10 to 20, making them relatively easy to pick. A mature plant (about 7 to 8 years) can yield over 15 lbs, but they start fruiting (averaging 3 or 4 lbs of fruit per plant) within two growing seasons after planting.

Interestingly, the fruit itself is more closely related to an apple and is dark purple in color. The color is attributed to high concentrations of flavonoids including anthocyanins. Due to health-promoting effects, there is great interest in fruits and vegetables containing high concentrations of flavonoids and polyphenols, which are considered potent antioxidants. Recent studies have shown that Aronia has a very high Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) compared to other foods.

However, mounting evidence is showing that values like ORAC, as indicators of antioxident activity, have no relavance to the effects of specific compounds that are considered bioreactive in the body. Many of these "bioreactive" compounds like polyphenols and flavonoids including anthocyanins, may have beneficial effects on the body unrelated to antioxident capacity.

The Aronia fruit has very high concentrations of polyphenols, including anthocyanins which may relate to potentially strong beneficial properties for health with regards to the function of coronary arteries. Other studies suggest antimicrobial properties for urinary tract health, colon cancer-fighting properties and possibly aiding in the management of diabetes. To date, no major human health studies have been published, so these potential benefits are only inferred from in vitro research.

Several food products can be made from the Aronia fruit including juice, juice extracts, jelly, and wine. It is true that some processing of the fruit is necessary to overcome some of the fruit’s astringent qualities which probably stem from the flavonoid or tannin content. However, these qualities, considered nutraceutical, heighten Aronia’s marketability and sales potential as a value added product for Maryland farmers.

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